Much of the nation's technology is developed in public institutions, especially universities and government research laboratories, and is freely available through libraries and classrooms. Roughly one-half of total United States research and development expenditures are funded by the United States Government, and the findings from this research are generally available to citizens and foreigners at little or no charge. In addition, a great deal of technology that was once guarded by patents or trade secrets has since passed into the public domain. This paper ignores these freely available segments of the national technology base and discusses proprietary technology.
Gary C. Hufbauer and George N. Carlson,
United States Policy toward the Transfer of Proprietary Technology: Licenses, Taxes, and Finance,
14 Vanderbilt Law Review
Available at: https://scholarship.law.vanderbilt.edu/vjtl/vol14/iss2/7