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Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review

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copyright, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, three-step test, TRIPS


Intellectual Property Law | International Trade Law | Law


This paper argues that international copyright treaties, such as the WTO TRIPS Agreement, should no longer be developed as sets of minimum standards with a standardized exception filter, namely the three-step test, but rather include a normative standard for the copyright rights themselves. In seeking harmony between rights and exceptions, and in light of copyright haphazard evolution (by simply adding new rights when a new way of using protected content was invented), a single new core norm is proposed: the reverse three-step test.



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