Ratification' by an alleged principal of acts that another person has assumed to do in his behalf without prior authorization gives rise to two general questions. First, can the person who ratifies be held liable for or be bound by the acts he has ratified? Second, can the person who ratifies bind the person that his assumed agent has presumed to bargain with if this person attempts to withdraw before the alleged principal ratifies? Each question presents conditions and refinements.
The present discussion will be confined to the second of the above questions-viz., Can the third party recede from the agreement prior to ratification by the principal? Three or four different answers have been given to this question. The theories sustaining these answers will now be considered in detail.
Theodore G. Pappas,
Rescission by Third Party Prior to Principal's Ratification of Agent's Unauthorized Action,
2 Vanderbilt Law Review
Available at: https://scholarship.law.vanderbilt.edu/vlr/vol2/iss1/15